Cancer

Fifteen (15) cancer types were identified in the collection of original research articles (n=232) meeting criteria for this review. Among the 15 cancer types, breast, colorectal, gastric/upper gastrointestinal, and prostate cancer have the most original research published in humans related to tomato / lycopene intake ranging from 25 to 79 publications. For breast, colorectal and gastric cancers, the data support a neutral, although potentially protective, relationship between tomato/lycopene intake and disease risk. Conclusions reflect outcomes from observational investigations on the association between dietary and plasma/serum lycopene and disease risk. Few investigations are available on tomato / tomato-based foods intake and cancer risk, suggesting an area for future research.

Prostate cancer (n=81) has the most complete dataset to draw conclusions because of the substantial research attention it has received in each of the 4 research sub-categories (dietary lycopene, plasma/serum lycopene, tomato/tomato-based foods intake and supplementation). Investigations range in quality; however, overall, the data support a protective relationship between consumption of tomato/tomato-based foods and lower risk for prostate cancer. Reports on lycopene supplementation in patients with prostate cancer indicate that lycopene supplementation is safe and well tolerated for up to 1 year, but does not improve disease status, as measured by changes in PSA levels. Previous reports indicating a benefit of lycopene supplementation in prostate cancer disease progression may be an artifact of transient endpoints, of which PSA is considered by some organizations. Tomato/tomato products intake, including supplementation with tomato products results in favorable benefits related to prostate cancer. Data continue to support the need to investigate the effects of potential foods or bioactive components of foods for longer durations and in more people to more fully understand and substantiate the potential of their action.

Main Findings

Main Findings

Main Findings

Main Findings


Dietary Lycopene and
Disease Risk

This section critically evaluates the relationship between dietary lycopene intake and risk of cancer of the following types:

Plasma/Serum Lycopene
and Disease Risk

This section critically evaluates the relationship between plasma/serum lycopene concentrations and risk of cancer of the following types:

Lycopene Supplementation
and Disease Risk

 This section critically evaluates the relationship between lycopene supplementation and risk or disease progression of cancer of the following types:

Tomato/Tomato-based foods and Disease Risk

This section critically evaluates the relationship between tomato/tomato-based foods intake and risk of cancer of the following types:

Critical Findings

Critical Findings

Critical Findings

Critical Findings