TOMATO INTAKE AND PLASMA/SERUM LYCOPENE

Six (6) publications meeting criteria for this review were available. Data suggest a beneficial relationship between dietary sources of lycopene and elevated plasma/serum concentrations of lycopene and bone health as measured by bone mass and markers of bone metabolism. Reducing oxidative stress is purported as a possible mechanism in managing cellular processes supporting bone health.

Plasma/Serum Lycopene and Disease Risk
Main findings

  • Consumption of tomatoes increases the level of serum lycopene
    • Shown to increase after single serving, 24 h (1 study)
    • Shown to increase after 1-week supplementation (diet or extract)
  • Consumption of tomatoes will also increase tissue levels of lycopene, including skin and adipose. Differential distribution has been reported among tissue sites.
  • Uptake from processed tomatoes greater than fresh tomatoes, in general and when delivered with dietary fat (i.e. dietary oils such as olive oil).
  • Disease (vs non-disease) state does not appear to alter uptake (as evidenced by subjects with prostate cancer, breast cancer and kidney disease.
    • This does not include malabsorption or GI dysfunction conditions, which may modify uptake.

Summary of studies and outcomes

  • Number of studies = 28
  • Risk estimates = 28
    • (+) = 26
    • N = 2

Tomato Intake and Plasma/Serum Lycopene

This section critically evaluates the relationship between tomato intake and plasma/serum lycopene concentrations

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Cancer: Rock CL Responsiveness of 1997 Epidemiological studies suggest that a high vegetable diet may reduce risk for breast cancer and may also improve prognosis Interv         (+)
breast   carotenoids to a high vegetable diet intervention designed to prevent breast cancer recurrence. Rock CL, Flatt SW, Wright FA, Faerber S, Newman V, Kealey S, Pierce JP. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997 Aug;6(8):617-23.   after the diagnosis of breast cancer. Circulating carotenoids may serve as a biomarker of vegetable and fruit intake, although several factors affect their bioavailability from food sources and may influence concentrations. One purpose of this study was to identify factors predictive of serum carotenoid, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in 79 postsurgically resected breast cancer patients at enrollment and at 12 months in a feasibility study of a high vegetable, low fat diet intervention to reduce risk for cancer recurrence. Another purpose was to identify variables associated with change in these serum concentrations 12 months after randomization into control and intervention groups. The diet intervention (versus control) group had significantly greater increases in carotenoid intakes (P < 0.03) and significantly greater increases in serum concentrations of lutein, alpha- and beta-carotene, lycopene, and retinol (P < 0.04). Stepwise multiple regression revealed the level of dietary intake to be predictive of most serum carotenoid concentrations at baseline and 12 months, with additional associations between selected micronutrient concentrations and serum cholesterol, body mass index, age, percentage of energy intake from fat, and alcohol intake also observed at these time points. Intervention group change in serum carotenoid concentrations was inversely associated with baseline level, age, and change in serum cholesterol concentration and positively associated with change in carotenoid and alcohol intake. Circulating carotenoid concentrations are responsive to a high vegetable diet intervention, which also included reduced dietary fat and increased fiber intakes, to reduce risk for breast cancer recurrence.           ↑ serum [lyco]
Cancer: breast Pierce JP Increases in plasma carotenoid concentrations in response to a major dietary change in the women's healthy eating and living study. Pierce JP, Natarajan L, Sun S, Al-Delaimy W, Flatt SW, Kealey S, Rock CL, Thomson CA, Newman VA, Ritenbaugh C, Gold EB, Caan BJ; Women's Healthy Eating and Living Study Group. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Oct;15(10):1886-92. 2006 BACKGROUND: Cohort studies suggest that higher circulating carotenoid concentrations through food sources may reduce breast cancer events. Other intervention studies have not achieved the level of change in circulating carotenoids required to properly test this hypothesis. METHODS: In a randomized trial of 2,922 breast cancer survivors, we examined blood and self-reported diet at baseline and 1 year. Intensive telephone counseling encouraged a plant-based diet in the intervention group. Diet was measured via 24-hour recalls, and a panel of plasma carotenoid concentrations was assessed at both time points. RESULTS: The study intervention was associated with a 51% increase in total carotenoid concentration, from 2.272 +/- 1.294 to 3.440 +/- 2.320 micromol/L, achieved mainly by marked increases in targeted carotenoids: alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein. For each of these targeted carotenoids, the proportion of the intervention sample remaining below the cutpoint for the lowest baseline quartile decreased by one third to one half. After 1 year of study, half of the intervention group was in the highest baseline quartile. No change in distribution was observed in comparison group. Intervention participants achieved this change by both dietary pattern and vegetable juice consumption. Participants who chose to change dietary pattern without consuming significant quantities of vegetable juice achieved 75% of the level of change observed in other intervention participants. CONCLUSIONS: Innovative telephone counseling intervention and dietary targets in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living study were associated with the level of change in circulating carotenoid concentration necessary to test the diet and breast cancer hypothesis suggested by cohort studies. RCT         (+) ↑ plasma [carotenoid]

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Cancer: prostate Clinton SK cis-trans lycopene isomers, carotenoids, and retinol in the human prostate. Clinton SK, Emenhiser C, Schwartz SJ, Bostwick DG, Williams AW, Moore BJ, Erdman JW Jr. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1996 Oct;5(10):823-33. 1996 An evaluation of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study has detected a lower prostate cancer risk associated with the greater consumption of tomatoes and related food products. Tomatoes are the primary dietary source of lycopene, a non-provitamin A carotenoid with potent antioxidant activity. Our goal was to define the concentrations of lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol in paired benign and malignant prostate tissue from 25 men, ages 53 to 74, undergoing prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer. The concentrations of specific carotenoids in the benign and malignant prostate tissue from the same subject are highly correlated. Lycopene and all-trans -carotene are the predominant carotenoids observed, with means +/- SE of 0.80 +/- 0.08 nmol/g and 0.54 +/- 0.09, respectively. Lycopene concentrations range from 0 to 2.58 nmol/g, and all-trans-carotene concentrations range from 0.09 to 1.70 nmol/g. The 9-cis -carotene isomer, -carotene, lutein, -cryptoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and -cryptoxanthin are consistently detectable in prostate tissue. No significant correlations between the concentration of lycopene and the concentrations of any other carotenoid are observed. In contrast, strong correlations between prostate-carotene and -carotene are noted (correlation coefficient, 0.88; P < 0.0001), as are correlations between several other carotenoid pairs, which reflects their similar dietary origins. Mean vitamin A concentration in the prostate is 1.52 nmol/g, with a range of 0.71 to 3.30 nmol/g. We further evaluated tomato-based food products, serum, and prostate tissue for the presence of geometric lycopene isomers using HPLC with a polymeric C30 reversed phase column. All-trans lycopene accounts for 79 to 91% and cis lycopene isomers for 9 to 21% of total lycopene in tomatoes, tomato paste, and tomato soup. Lycopene concentrations in the serum of men range between 0.60 and 1.9 nmol/ml, with 27 to 42% all-trans lycopene and 58 to 73% cis-isomers distributed among 12 to 13 peaks, depending upon theirchromatographic resolution. In striking contrast with foods, all-trans lycopene accounts for only 12 to 21% and cis isomers for 79 to 88% of total lycopene in benign or malignant prostate tissues. Cis Isomers of lycopene within the prostate are distributed among 14 to 18 peaks. We conclude that a diverse array of carotenoids are found in the human prostate with significant intra-individual variation. The presence of lycopene in the prostate at concentrations that are biologically active in laboratory studies supports the hypothesis that lycopene may have direct effects within the prostate and contribute to the reduced prostate cancer risk associated with the reduced prostate cancer risk associated with the consumption of tomato-based foods. The future identification and characterization of geometric lycopene isomers may lead to the development of novel agents for chemoprevention studies. CS       (+) Descriptive
Cancer: prostate Freeman VL Prostatic levels of tocopherols, carotenoids, and retinol in relation to plasma levels and self-reported usual dietary intake. Freeman VL, Meydani M, Yong S, Pyle J, Wan Y, Arvizu-Durazo R, Liao Y. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Jan 15;151(2):10918. 2000 This study evaluated how prostatic levels of antioxidants relate to plasma levels and self-reported usual dietary intake. Definition of these relations may aid in interpreting studies of antioxidant exposure and prostate cancer risk. Between July 1996 and April 1997, plasma and prostatic tissue levels of tocopherols, carotenoids, and retinol were measured in 47 men undergoing radical prostatectomy or transurethral prostatectomy at Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois, and an affiliate hospital. Dietary intake was measured by using a 122-item version of the Block Health Habits and History Questionnaire, and correlations were assessed with Pearson's coefficients. Prostatic levels of tocopherols and carotenoids (but not retinol) were significantly correlated with plasma levels (r= 0.31-0.56, p < 0.05-0.0001); the strongest correlations were associated with lycopene, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol (0.56, 0.54, and 0.52, respectively; p < 0.0001). Relative concentrations of tocopherols and carotenoids in prostate tissue were proportionate to those in plasma. No correlation between prostatic levels and reported dietary intake was observed (r = -0.09 to 0.16, p < not significant). Adjustment for energy intake, body mass index, and serum lipids did not impact these relations. These results suggest that plasma levels of tocopherols and carotenoids better reflect prostatic exposure than self-reported usual dietary intake. CS       (+)  

 

Disease
type
First
Author

Study Title
and Complete Citation

Date Abstract Study
Type
G.Tom
+, N,
P.Tom
+, N,
F.Tom
+, N, -
Lyco
+, N,
Other
+, N,
Cancer: prostate Holmes MD Validation of a food frequency questionnaire measurement of selected nutrients using biological markers in African-American men. Holmes MD, Powell IJ, Campos H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL, Willett WC. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Nov;61(11):1328-36. Epub 2007 Feb 7. 2007 OBJECTIVE: To validate selected nutrients assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) used in the Harvard cohort studies in an African-American group. DESIGN: Blood aliquots were pooled for each decile of intake of two carotenoids and alpha tocopherol as measured by FFQ. These pooled samples were analyzed for nutrient content, and the resultant blood levels were plotted against the median for each decile of intake. In addition, adipose tissue samples taken from each man were analyzed for content of specific fatty acids. We calculated the Spearman correlations comparing intakes of specific fatty acids as percent of total fat intake, adjusted for energy intake, as measured by FFQ, with the percentage of the corresponding fatty acid in adipose tissue. SUBJECTS AND SETTINGS: African-American men (N=104) with prostate cancer were recruited from a Detroit physician's practice and completed a detailed FFQ. RESULTS: Comparing decile 10 with decile 1 intake of nutrients as measured by FFQ, there was a 32% higher blood level of lycopene, a 288% higher blood level of beta carotene and a 100% higher blood level of alpha tocopherol. The Spearman correlation coefficients between intakes of linoleic acid, alpha linolenic acid, long-chain n-3 fatty acids and trans fatty acid measured by FFQ and the corresponding adipose tissue levels were between 0.10 and 0.47. CONCLUSION: The FFQ was able to distinguish meaningful differences in biochemical measurements of selected nutrients and presumably corresponding differences in the extremes of intake in African-American men with prostate cancer who were likely to be motivated to report accurately. However, the results found are similar to those found in other populations. CS         (+)

blood [lyco] 32%

↑ than reflected in FFQ

 
Cancer: prostate van Breemen RB Liquid chromatographymass spectrometry of cis-and all-trans-lycopene in human serum and prostate tissue after dietary supplementation with tomato sauce. van Breemen RB, Xu X, Viana MA, Chen L, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Duncan C, Bowen PE, Sharifi R. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Apr 10;50(8):22149. 2002 Several epidemiological studies suggest a lower incidence of prostate cancer in men who routinely consume tomato products. Tomatoes are the primary dietary source of lycopene, which is among the most potent antioxidants of the carotenoids. Men with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate adenocarcinoma were recruited (n = 32) and consumed tomato sauce based pasta dishes for 3 weeks (equivalent to 30 mg of lycopene per day) before radical prostectomy. Prostate tissue from needle biopsy just before intervention and prostectomy after supplementation from a subset of 11 subjects was evaluated for both total lycopene and lycopene geometrical isomer ratios. A gradient HPLC system using a C(18) column with UV-vis absorbance detection was used to measure total lycopene. Because the absorbance detector was insufficiently sensitive, HPLC with a C(30) column and positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometric (LC-MS) detection was developed as a new assay to measure the ratio of lycopene cis/trans isomers in these samples. The limit of detection of the LC-MS method was determined to be 0.93 pmol of lycopene on-column, and a linear response was obtained over 3 orders of magnitude. Total lycopene in serum increased 2.0-fold from 35.6 to 69.9 microg/dL (from 0.664 to 1.30 microM) as a result of dietary supplementation with tomato sauce, whereas total lycopene in prostate tissue increased 3.0-fold from 0.196 to 0.582 ng/mg of tissue (from 0.365 to 1.09 pmol/mg). all-trans-Lycopene and at least 14 cis-isomer peaks were detected in prostate tissue and serum. The mean proportion of all-trans-lycopene in prostate tissue was approximately 12.4% of total lycopene before supplementation but increased to 22.7% after dietary intervention with tomato sauce. In serum there was only a 2.8% but statistically significant increase in the proportion of all-trans-lycopene after intervention. These results indicate that short-term supplementation with tomato sauce containing primarily all-trans-lycopene (83% of total lycopene) results in substantial increases in total lycopene in serum and prostate and a substantial increase in all-trans-lycopene in prostate but relatively less in serum. Interv       (+) Tomato diet= ↑ serum & prostate tissue levels

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Cancer: prostate Parsons JK The Men's Eating and Living (MEAL) study: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B pilot trial of dietary intervention for the treatment of prostate cancer. Parsons JK, Newman V, Mohler JL, Pierce JP, Paskett E, Marshall J; Cancer and Leukemia Group B. Urology. 2008 Sep;72(3):633-7. Epub 2008 Feb 15. 2008 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of implementing a diet-based intervention in men with prostate cancer. METHODS: Seventy-four men aged 50 to 80 years with biopsy-proven adenocarcinoma of the prostate were randomized to receive either telephone-based dietary counseling or standardized, written nutritional information. Telephone dietary counseling targets included increased intakes of vegetables (particularly cruciferous vegetables and tomato products), whole grains, and beans/legumes. Dietary intakes and plasma carotenoid levels were assessed at baseline and at 6 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In the intervention arm, mean daily intakes of total vegetables, crucifers, tomato products, and beans/legumes increased by 76%, 143%, 292%, and 95%, respectively, whereas fat intake decreased by 12% (P = 0.02). In the control arm, there were no significant changes in mean intakes of total vegetables, tomato products, crucifers, beans/legumes, or fat. Similarly, in the intervention arm, mean plasma levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, and total carotenoids increased by 33%, 36%, 19%, 30%, and 26%, respectively (P <0.05). In the control arm, there were no significant changes in plasma levels of alpha- or beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene, or total carotenoids. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone-based dietary counseling increases vegetable intake, decreases fat intake, and significantly increases plasma levels of potentially anticarcinogenic carotenoids in men with prostate cancer. These data support the feasibility of implementing clinical trials of dietary intervention in men with prostate cancer. RCT         (+) ↑ tomato intake 292% ↑plasma [lyco] 30%
Euro pop Olmedilla B A European multicentre, placebo-controlled supplementation study with alpha-tocopherol, carotene-rich palm oil, lutein or lycopene: analysis of serum responses. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Southon S, Wright AJ, Blanco I, Gil-Martinez E, van den Berg H, Thurnham D, Corridan B, Chopra M, Hininger I. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002 Apr;102(4):447-56. 2002 Increased levels of oxidative stress have been implicated in tissue damage and the development of chronic diseases, and dietary antioxidants may reduce the risk of oxidative tissue damage. As part of a European multicentre project, several studies were undertaken with the aim of testing whether the consumption of foods rich in carotenoids reduces oxidative damage to human tissue components. We describe here the serum response of carotenoids and tocopherols upon supplementation with carotenoids from natural extracts (alpha-carotene+beta-carotene, lutein or lycopene; 15 mg/day) and/or with alpha-tocopherol (100 mg/day) in a multicentre, placebo-controlled intervention study in 400 healthy male and female volunteers, aged 25-45 years, from five European regions (France, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland, The Netherlands and Spain). Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol increased serum alpha-tocopherol levels, while producing a marked decrease in serum gamma-tocopherol. Supplementation with alpha- + beta-carotene (carotene-rich palm oil) resulted in 14-fold and 5-fold increases respectively in serum levels of these carotenoids. Supplementation with lutein (from marigold extracts) elevated serum lutein (approx. 5-fold), zeaxanthin (approx. doubled) and ketocarotenoids (although these were not present in the supplement), whereas lycopene supplementation (from tomato paste) resulted in a 2-fold increase in serum lycopene. The isomer distributions of beta-carotene and lycopene in serum remained constant regardless of the isomer composition in the capsules. In Spanish volunteers, additional data showed that the serum response to carotenoid supplementation reached a plateau after 4 weeks, and no significant side effects (except carotenodermia) or changes in biochemical or haematological indices were observed throughout the study. This part of the study describes dose-time responses, isomer distribution, subject variability and side effects during supplementation with the major dietary carotenoids in healthy subjects. RCT       (+) [Lyco]  

 

Disease
type
First
Author
Study Title
and Complete Citation
Date Abstract Study
Type
G.Tom
+, N,
P.Tom
+, N,
F.Tom
+, N, -
Lyco
+, N,
Other
+, N,
Food intake patterns Djuric Z A Mediterranean dietary intervention in healthy American women changes plasma carotenoids and fatty acids in distinct clusters. Djuric Z, Ren J, Blythe J, VanLoon G, Sen A. Nutr Res. 2009 Mar;29(3):156-63. 2009 This study examined patterns of changes in plasma fatty acids and carotenoids when women were asked to follow a novel, Greek-Mediterranean exchange list diet. A total of 69 healthy, nonobese women ages 25 to 59 years were randomized either to continue their own usual diet or to follow a modified Mediterranean diet for 6 months. There were no significant changes in blood lipids, triacylglycerol, insulin, glucose, or C-reactive protein. Mean plasma carotenoids increased by 55%, which is consistent with a large increase in fruit and vegetable consumption. Likewise, changes in fat intakes were reflected in blood fatty acids, with a 25% increase in mean plasma monounsaturated fatty acids. Principal component analysis was conducted to examine the sources of interindividual variation for changes in carotenoid and fatty acid levels. Changes in the Mediterranean diet were clustered together in 4 components that accounted for 78% of the variance in plasma levels. Increases in plasma lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene clustered together in a "vegetable" pattern, and increases in carotenoids found in fruit, beta-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin also clustered together but accounted for less of the variance. Increases in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids were clustered with a decrease in plasma polyunsaturated fatty acids, consistent with substitution in the type of oils consumed. The only association of fatty acid levels with carotenoids was that of lycopene, which clustered together with an increase in saturated fatty acids. The changes in blood levels indicate the exchange list diet was effective for targeting Mediterranean nutrient intakes using foods available in the United States. RCT         (+)

↑ palsma [carotenoi ds]
General Kant AK A comparison of three 2005 OBJECTIVE: Examination of dietary indexes in association with objective biomarkers of dietary intake and chronic disease PC       N  
population   dietary pattern indexes   risk is an important step in their validation. We compared three dietary pattern indexes-Healthy Eating Index (HEI), subset          
    for predicting biomarkers   Recommended Foods Score (RFS-24 hour recall), and Dietary Diversity Score for recommended foods (DDS-R)-for their            
(NHANES)   of diet and disease. Kant AK, Graubard BI. J Am Coll Nutr. 2005 Aug;24(4):294-303.   ability to predict biomarkers of dietary intake, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. METHODS: We used dietary and laboratory data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to study these associations in 8719 disease-free adults aged > or =20 y. The HEI, developed by the USDA, was a sum of scores on consideration of ten individual components; the RFS was a sum of all recommended foods (lean meat, poultry and fish, whole grains, fruits and juices, low-fat dairy, and vegetables) mentioned in the recall; the DDS-R examined whether or not a recommended food was mentioned from each of the five major food groups. The independent association of the dietary pattern indexes with body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and serum concentrations of several biomarkers were examined using regression methods to adjust for multiple covariates. RESULTS: All indexes were strong independent positive predictors of serum concentrations of vitamin C, E, folate, and all carotenoids (p < or = 0.00001), except lycopene, and were negative predictors of BMI, serum homocysteine, C-reactive protein, plasma glucose, and hemoglobin A1C (p < 0.05). The RFS and DDS-R were inversely associated with blood pressure and serum cholesterol (p < or = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The RFS and DDS-R performed as well or better than the HEI for predicting serum concentration of nutrients and biomarkers of disease risk.            

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
General population (NHS, HPFUS) Michaud DS Associations of plasma carotenoid concentrations and dietary intake of specific carotenoids in samples of two prospective cohort studies using a new carotenoid database. Michaud DS, Giovannucci EL, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Forman MR, Sampson L, Willett WC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1998 Apr;7(4):283-90. 1998 Diet-plasma carotenoid associations were examined in samples of women and men from each cohort in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. In each sample, participants completed two self-administered food frequency questionnaires with at least a 1-year interval and provided a blood specimen preceding the second food frequency questionnaire. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from values for the five major carotenoids found in humanplasma, specifically, alpha- and beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, and lycopene, using the United States Department of Agriculture-National Cancer Institute Carotenoid Database, as well as updated values for tomato products. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to compare diet-plasma correlations over time by sex after adjustment for recognized covariates. Among nonsmokingwomen (n = 162), the adjusted diet-plasma carotenoid associations were 0.48 for alpha-carotene, 0.27 for beta-carotene and lutein, 0.32 for beta-cryptoxanthin, and 0.21 for lycopene. Among nonsmoking men (n = 110), diet-plasma correlations were 0.47 for alpha-carotene and lycopene, 0.35 for beta-carotene, 0.43 for beta-cryptoxanthin, and 0.40 for lutein. Correlations between total fruit or vegetable intake and each plasma carotenoid level were not as high as any of the calculated carotenoid intake using the new database values. The correlations observed in this study indicate that the new carotenoid database provides valuable information on specific carotenoid intake and may be useful in epidemiological studies that attempt to account for associations between fruit or vegetable intake and disease. PC subset       (+)  
General population Mayne ST Plasma lycopene concentrations in humans are determined by lycopene intake, plasma cholesterol concentrations and selected demographic factors. Mayne ST, Cartmel B, Silva F, Kim CS, Fallon BG, Briskin K, Zheng T, Baum M, Shor-Posner G, Goodwin WJ Jr. J Nutr. 1999 Apr;129(4):849-54. 1999 Higher plasma lycopene concentrations have been associated with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases. Determinants of lycopene concentrations in humans have received limited attention. We had blood lycopene concentrations and lycopene consumption data available from 111 participants in a two-center cancer prevention trial involving beta-carotene and examined determinants of plasma lycopene levels cross-sectionally. The median plasma lycopene level was 0.59 micromol/L (range 0.07-1.79). Low plasma concentrations of lycopene were associated with the following variables in univariate analyses: study site (Florida lower than Connecticut, P = 0.001), being nonmarried (P = 0.02), having lower income (P = 0.003), being nonwhite race/ethnicity (P = 0.03), having lower dietary lycopene intake (r = 0.29, P = 0.002), having lower plasma cholesterol (r = 0. 43, P = 0.0001) and triglyceride levels (r = 0.26, P = 0.005), and consuming less vitamin C (r = 0.20, P = 0.03). Women had slightly higher plasma lycopene levels than men (0.65 vs. 0.58 micromol/L; P = 0.31), despite lower dietary intake of lycopene (1,040 vs. 1,320 microg/d; P = 0.50). Plasma lycopene levels did not differ in smokers and nonsmokers. In stepwise regression analyses, the determinants of plasma lycopene were plasma cholesterol, dietary lycopene, and marital status; these three variables explained 26% of the variance in plasma lycopene. Relatively few lifestyle and demographic factors were important determinants of plasma lycopene levels, with plasma cholesterol, marital status, and lycopene intake being of greatest importance. CS         (+)

serum [lyco] affected by plasma chol, marital status, and lyco intake

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
General population Re R Tomato consumption and plasma lycopene concentration in people aged 65 y and over in a British national survey. Re R, Mishra GD, Thane CW, Bates CJ. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec;57(12):1545-54 2003 OBJECTIVE: Assessment of consumption of raw and processed tomatoes, plasma lycopene concentration and their interrelationship in a nationally representative sample of elderly British people. SETTING:: A 1994-1995 National Diet and Nutrition Survey: a nationwide cross-sectional sample of people aged 65 y and over living in mainland Britain, either in the community ("free-living", n=1275) or in institutions such as nursing homes (n=412). METHODS: Consumption of raw and processed tomatoes (including those in tomato-containing composite foods) was recorded by a 4-day dietary record for each participant. Plasma lycopene concentration was assayed by HPLC. Sociodemographic and lifestyle information was recorded by trained interviewers. RESULTS: In all, 29% of free-living people and 24% of those living in institutions did not consume any raw or processed tomatoes during the 4-day recording period. Free-living participants were more likely to consume raw tomatoes (26 vs 16%). Plasma lycopene concentration was positively associated with the weight of raw and processed tomatoes consumed, especially with processed tomatoes and their products, alcohol consumption and with plasma total (as well as HDL and non-HDL) cholesterol concentrations. Among free-living participants, increased age, cigarette smoking habit and manual occupational social class were all associated with lower plasma lycopene concentration. CONCLUSIONS: In the current population, consumption of raw and processed tomatoes varied by sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics, and made a significant contribution to plasma lycopene concentration. Determinants of plasma lycopene concentration were age, plasma cholesterol concentration and smoking habit. CS       (+)  
General population (EPIC) Trichop-oulou A Plasma carotenoid levels in relation to the Mediterranean diet in Greece. Trichopoulou A, Benetou V, Lagiou P, Gnardellis Ch, Stacewicz-Sapunzakis M, Papas A. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2003 May;73(3):221-5. 2003 In the context of the Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the effects of the intake of plant foods central in the traditional Mediterranean diet on plasma levels of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, and lutein-zeaxanthin. Study subjects were a randomsample of 45 men and 68 women, aged 30-82 years, from the Greek EPIC cohort of 27,953 volunteers. Linear regression models were fitted, with the carotenoid blood levels as dependent variables. Independent variables were selected food items, as well as body mass index, controlling for energy intake and a set of demographic factors. Body mass index was inversely associated with plasma levels of the studied carotenoids. The association was highly significant for alpha-carotene and beta-carotene, significant for lutein-zeaxanthin, and borderline significant (p approximately 0.07) for lycopene. Tomato intake was significantly positively associated with plasma lycopene, and beta-carotene. Other fruity vegetables and non-fruity vegetables were significantly positively associated, the former with alpha-carotene and the latter with both alpha- and beta-carotene plasma levels. Fruits showed a highly significant positive association with plasma beta-cryptoxanthin, as well as with beta-carotene. No association was found between the intake of olive oil or other added lipids and plasma carotenoids. We conclude that among the studied components of the Mediterranean diet, fruits and vegetables tend to increase levels of some carotenoids, but olive oil has no apparent effect. CS       (+)  

 

Disease type First Author Study Title
and Complete Citation
Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
General population (NHANES) Ganji V Population determinants of serum lycopene concentrations in the United States: data from the Third National Health a nd Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Ganji V, Kafai MR; Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1998-1994. J Nutr. 2005 Mar;135(3):567-72. 2005 Serum lycopene is inversely related to the risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases. We used data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994, to investigate the relation between serum lycopene concentrations and sex, age, geographical location, race-ethnicity, education, alcohol, smoking, BMI, blood pressure, serum total cholesterol andtriacylglycerol, and intakes of fat, tomatoes and tomato-based products in 3413 individuals aged 17-90 y. Multivariate adjusted mean lycopene concentrations were 48.3% lower in individuals > or =70 y old than in those 17 to <30 y old (P < 0.0001), 7.6% lower in women than in men (P = 0.0045), 15.1% lower in people living in the South than those in the West (P < 0.0001), 10.3 and 61.0% lower in the 1st quartile than in the 4th quartile for dietary fat intake (P = 0.0173) and serum cholesterol (P < 0.0001), respectively, 11.1% lower in tomato noneaters than those who ate tomatoes > or =31 times/mo (P = 0.0085), 13.5% lower in pizza noneaters than those who ate pizza > or =16 times/mo (P = 0.0016), and 20.6% lower in pasta noneaters than those who ate pasta (with tomato sauce) > or =16 times/mo (P < 0.0001). Race-ethnicity, alcohol, BMI, blood pressure, and consumption of non-tomato vegetables, and fruits and juices had no association with serum lycopene concentrations. Sex, age, geographical region, socioeconomic status, serum total cholesterol, smoking, and intakes of fat, tomatoes, pizza, and pasta were significant determinants of serum lycopene concentrations in the United States. PC subset       (+)  
General population (WHI) Casso D Correlates of serum lycopene in older women. Casso D, White E, Patterson RE, Agurs-Collins T, Kooperberg C, Haines PS. Nutr Cancer. 2000;36(2):163-9. 2000 Experimental and epidemiological evidence suggests that lycopene, a predominant carotenoid found in human serum, may reduce the risk of certain cancers. We examined the association of dietary, physiological, and other factors with serum lycopene concentrations in a subsample of 946 postmenopausal women participating in the Women's Health Initiative. Pearson partial correlation coefficients and linear regression coefficients were calculated after adjustment for age, ethnicity, and serum low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Serum lycopene was correlated with serum LDL cholesterol (r = 0.23) and dietary lycopene (r = 0.17, both p < 0.001). Individual food items found to be correlated with serum lycopene after adjustment included fresh tomatoes or tomato juice (r = 0.11), cooked tomatoes, tomato sauce, or salsa (r = 0.17), and spaghetti with meat sauce (r = 0.19, all p < 0.01). Age and body mass index were negatively associated with serum lycopene levels (both p < 0.001). Serum lycopene levels were highest in the summer and highest for those living in the northeastern United States. If we postulate that high serum lycopene levels reduce cancer risk, it becomes apparent that we have limited ability to detect this association from studies of lycopene intake. An understanding of factors associated with serum lycopene levels can be useful for the interpretation of studies of dietary lycopene and disease risk. PC subset       (+) Tomato categorie s

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Healthy Neuhouser M L Serum concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and the carotenoids are influenced by diet, race and obesity in a sample of healthy adolescents. Neuhouser ML, Rock CL, Eldridge AL, Kristal AR, Patterson RE, Cooper DA, Neumark-Sztainer D, Cheskin LJ, Thornquist MD. J Nutr. 2001 Aug;131(8):2184-91. 2001 An important part of understanding the functions of vitamin A, vitamin E and the carotenoids in nutritional status assessment, health promotion and disease prevention is knowledge of factors that influence their distribution in human tissues. Our objective was to examine serum concentrations of these nutrients and compounds in a sample of 285 healthy participants, 12-17 y old, from three U. S. cities. Pearson correlations between diet measured with a food frequency questionnaire and serum nutrient concentrations among these adolescents (adjusted for total serum cholesterol, age, sex, race and body mass index) were as follows: retinol, 0.23; alpha-tocopherol, 0.16; alpha-carotene, 0.31; beta-carotene, 0.15; beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.38; lycopene, 0.08; and lutein + zeaxanthin, 0.25. Multivariate linear regression modeled associations of demographic, dietary and physiologic variables with serum concentrations of these nutrients. African-American participants had significantly lower concentrations of serum retinol (P < 0.001), alpha-tocopherol (P < 0.01) and alpha-carotene (P < 0.02), but higher concentrations of lutein + zeaxanthin (P = 0.001) compared with Caucasians. Obese participants had serum nutrient concentrations that were 2-10% (P < 0.05) lower than normal weight participants. Dietary intake was a significant predictor of all serum analytes (P < 0.01) except lycopene. These models explained 20% of the variability in serum retinol, 28% of the variability in serum alpha-tocopherol, and 14-24% of the variability in serum carotenoids. CS       N  
Healthy Gartner C Lycopene is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Gartner C, Stahl W, Sies H. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997 Jul;66(1):116-22. 1997 Lycopene bioavailability from a single dose of fresh tomatoes or tomato paste (23 mg lycopene) ingested together with 15 g corn oil was compared by analyzing carotenoid concentrations in the chylomicron fraction. The lycopene isomer pattern was the same in both fresh tomatoes and tomato paste. The triacylglycerol response in chylomicrons was not significantly different after both treatments. Ingestion of tomato paste was found to yield 2.5-fold higher total and all-trans-lycopene peak concentrations (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively) and 3.8-fold higher area under the curve (AUC) responses (P < 0.001) than ingestion of fresh tomatoes. The same was calculated for lycopene cis-isomers, but only the AUC response for the cis-isomers was significantly higher after ingestion of tomato paste (P < 0.005). No difference was observed in the alpha- and beta-carotene response. Thus, in humans, the bioavailability of lycopene is greater from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes. Interv       (+) Fresh vs. paste P>F

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Healthy Allen CM Changes in plasma and oral mucosal lycopene isomer concentrations in healthy adults consuming standard servings of processed tomato products. Allen CM, Schwartz SJ, Craft NE, Giovannucci EL, De Groff VL, Clinton SK. Nutr Cancer. 2003;47(1):48-56. 2003 The consumption of tomato products is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and several cancers. It is hypothesized that lycopene, the major carotenoid in tomato products, may mediate this relationship. We designed a study to examine changes in plasma and buccal mucosal cell (BMC) lycopene concentrations in healthy adults consuming standard daily servings of processed tomato products: spaghetti sauce, tomato soup, or vegetable juice. Thirty-six healthy subjects consumed a lycopene-free diet for 2 wk and were then assigned to one of three (n = 12) intervention groups consuming daily, single servings of sauce (21 mg lycopene per (1/2) cup), soup (12 mg lycopene per 1 cup), or juice (17 mg lycopene per 8 oz) for 4 wk. Fasting blood and BMC samples were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis for carotenoids and lycopene isomers. Total plasma lycopene concentrations (Mean +/- SEM) decreased from 1.05 +/- 0.07 to 0.54 +/- 0.05 micromol/l (49%, P < 0.0001) during the 2-wk washout period. Following intervention, plasma lycopene concentrations increased significantly for those consuming sauce, soup, and juice (compared with washout baseline) to 2.08 (192%, P < 0.0001), 0.91 (122%, P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (92%, P < 0.0001) micromol/l, respectively. Plasma isomer concentrations show a 61:39 ratio of cis:all-trans at the start of the study. During the 2-wk washout the decrease in plasma all-trans-lycopene was greater than that for pooled cis isomers (70:30 cis:trans ratio, P < 0.001). After 2 wk of dietary intervention isomer ratios returned to those observed at the start of the study. Total BMC lycopene concentrations did not significantly change during the brief washout. During the 4-wk intervention period, BMC total lycopene concentrations increased (P < 0.005) by 165, 42, and 48% nmol/mg protein for those consuming sauce, soup, and juice, respectively. This study demonstrates that plasma lycopene decreases by 50% after approximately 2 wk on a lycopene-free diet with a decrease in the ratio of all-trans compared with cis isomers. Single, daily servings of processed tomato products significantly increase blood and BMC lycopene for 2 wk. Additional studies of lycopene bioavailability, isomerization, metabolism, and bioactivity will provide greater insight into the potential health benefits suggested by epidemiological studies and laboratory investigations. Interv       (+)  
Healthy Fielding JM Increases in plasma lycopene concentration after consumption of tomatoes cooked with olive oil. Fielding JM, Rowley KG, Cooper P, O' Dea K. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005;14(2):131-6. 2005 Lycopene is the main carotenoid in tomatoes and it has been hypothesised to be responsible for reducing the risk of some cancers and heart disease. The cooking of tomatoes with olive oil is a characteristic combination in the Southern Mediterranean diet. Previous studies have shown that the absorption of lycopene is greater from processed tomatoes than fresh tomatoes, since the processing breaks down the tomato cell matrix and makes the lycopene more available. The aim of the present study was to determine whether consumption of diced tomatoes cooked with olive oil resulted in higher plasma lycopene concentrations than consumption of diced tomatoes cooked without olive oil. Plasma lycopene concentrations were measured after 5 days on a low lycopene diet and again after a five-day dietary intervention, in healthy subjects, who consumed one meal per day of tomatoes (470 g) cooked with or without extra virgin olive oil (25 ml olive oil). There was an 82% increase in plasma trans-lycopene (P< 0.001) and a 40% in cis-lycopene (P = 0.002) concentrations in the 11 subjects who consumed tomatoes cooked in olive oil. There was no significant change in trans-lycopene (P = 0.684) and a 15% increase in cis-lycopene (P = 0.007) concentrations in 12 subjects consuming tomatoes cooked without olive oil. We conclude that the addition of olive oil to diced tomatoes during cooking greatly increases the absorption of lycopene. The results highlight the importance of cuisine (i.e how a food is prepared and consumed) in determining the bioavailability of dietary carotenoids such as lycopene. Interv       (+)  

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Healthy Riso P Effect of a tomato drink intervention on insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 serum levels in healthy subjects. Riso P, Brusamolino A, Martinetti A, Porrini M Nutr Cancer. 2006;55(2):157-62. 2006 There is concern that dietary factors can modulate the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a tomato drink intervention providing small amounts of lycopene and other carotenoids on serum levels of IGF-1. Twenty healthy young subjects participated in a repeated measure double-blind, cross-over design. Subjects consumed 250 ml of a tomato drink or a placebo drink for 26 days separated by 26 days wash-out. The tomato drink intake increased plasma lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, and beta-carotene concentrations by 0.22, 0.12, 0.13, and 0.18 micromol/L, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant effect of the tomato drink intake on IGF-1 levels was observed. However, changes in lycopene before and after each experimental period were inversely and significantly correlated with those of IGF-1 (r = -0.33, P < 0.05, N = 20). No correlation was found with the other carotenoids. A significant reduction of IGF-1 serum level (-5.7%) was observed in subjects (n = 11) with the highest plasma lycopene response but also IGF-1 levels following the tomato drink intake (P < 0.05). No effect was evident after the placebo treatment. The results suggest that further exploration of the role of tomato lycopene on IGF-1 modulation both on healthy and on subjects at risk is necessary. RCT   (+)     (-)/N IIGF-1
Healthy Tang G Bioavailability of synthetic and biosynthetic deuterated lycopene in humans. Tang G, Ferreira AL, Grusak MA, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, Russell RM, Krinsky NI. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Apr;16(4):229-35. 2005 Current knowledge of the bioavailability of lycopene in humans is limited due to the inability to distinguish newly administered lycopene from the body reserves of lycopene. A quantitative method to assess the absorption and relative bioavailability of newly absorbed synthetic or natural lycopene was developed using two deuterated lycopene sources, in conjunction with an advanced LC/APCI-MS (liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry) to analyze newly absorbed lycopene in blood samples of study subjects. Two subjects (1 male and 1 female) consumed hydroponically grown tomatoes containing deuterium-enriched lycopene (80-84 g wet weight tomato containing 16.3 and 17.4 micromol lycopene, respectively) and two subjects (1 male, and 1 female) consumed 11 micromol synthetic (2)H(10) lycopene in 6 g of corn oil. Tomatoes were steamed and pureed. The doses were given together with a liquid formulated drink with 25% energy from fat. Our results showed that up to 34 days after taking an oral (2)H(10) lycopene dose (synthetic or from tomato) with a liquid formula drink, the area under the curve of the average serum percent enrichment response of synthetic lycopene reached 33.9 (+/-1.7) nmol-day/micromol lycopene in the dose, whereas that of lycopene from the tomato dose was 11.8 (+/-0.3) nmol-day/mumol lycopene in the dose. Our study provides evidence that the absorption of physiological levels of lycopene in intrinsically labeled tomatoes can be studied in humans. From these preliminary investigations, we find that the bioavailability of synthetic lycopene in oil appears to be about three times higher than that of lycopene from steamed and pureed tomatoes. Interv         (+) ↑ lyco abs (3x) when with synthetic vs tomato

 

Disease
type
First
Author
Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study
Type
G.Tom
+, N,
P.Tom
+, N,
F.Tom
+, N, -
Lyco
+, N,
Other
+, N,
Italian pop Caperle M Dietary profiles and antioxidants in a rural population of central Italy with a low frequency of cancer. Caperle M, Maiani G, Azzini E, Conti EM, Raguzzini A, Ramazzotti V, Crespi M. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1996 Jun;5(3):197-206. 1996 This descriptive, cross-sectional study reports the anti-oxidant activities of a population sample of 736 individuals, randomly selected from residents of two small towns of the Latina province of Italy (an area at low frequency of cancer). The circulating levels of vitamins A, C and E, ceruloplasmin, carotenoids (lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, alpha- and beta-carotene, cryptoxanthin), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, as well as anthropometric measurements (skin-folds, height, weight) were evaluated. A dietary interview was also performed by means of a semi-quantitative questionnaire. All the anti-oxidants were above the cut-off points for normality, whereas body mass index, % fat and serum lipids were not clearly suggestive of a protected population. The data obtained could be useful to estimate the baseline values of protective microelements and to assess dietary profiles in populations following a Mediterranean diet. CS         (+) ↑ circ blood [lyco]
Japan pop Kawashima A Four week supplementation with mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrates increased protective serum antioxidants and folate and decreased plasma homocysteine in Japanese subjects. Kawashima A, Madarame T, Koike H, Komatsu Y, Wise JA. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(3):411-21. 2007 Fruit and vegetable consumption has been inversely associated with the risk of chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease, with the beneficial effects attributed to a variety of protective antioxidants, carotenoids and phytonutrients. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementation with dehydrated concentrates from mixed fruit and vegetable juices (Juice Plus+R) on serum antioxidant and folate status, plasma homocysteine levels and markers for oxidative stress and DNA damage. Japanese subjects (n=60; age 27.8 yrs; BMI 22.1) were recruited to participate in a double-blind placebo controlled study and were randomized into 2 groups of 30, matched for sex, age, BMI and smoking status (39 males, 22 smokers; 21 females, 13 smokers). Subjects were given encapsulated supplements containing mixed fruit and vegetable juice concentrates or a matching placebo for 28 days, with blood and urine samples collected at baseline, day 14 and day 28 for analytical testing. Compared with the placebo, 28 day supplementation significantly increased the concentration of serum beta-carotene 528% (p<0.0001), lycopene 80.2% (p<0.0005), and alpha tocopherol 39.5% (p<0.0001). Serum folate increased 174.3% (p<0.0001) and correlated with a decrease in plasma homocysteine of -19.9% (p<0.03). Compared with baseline, measures of oxidative stress decreased with serum lipid peroxides declining -10.5% (p<0.02) and urine 8OHdG decreasing -21.1% (p<0.02). Evaluation of data from smokers only (n=17) after 28 days of active supplementation showed comparable changes. Conclusion: In the absence of dietary modification, supplementation with the fruit and vegetable juice concentrate capsules proved to be a highly bioavailable source of phytonutrients. Important antioxidants were elevated to desirable levels associated with decreased risk of disease while markers of oxidative stress were reduced, and folate status improved with a concomitant decrease in homocysteine, and these benefits occurred to a similar extent in smokers when compared to non-smokers. RCT         (+) ↑ serum [lyco] Nonspecific  Ox stress

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Kidney Sutherland WH Supplementation with tomato juice increases plasma lycopene but does not alter susceptibility to oxidation of low-density lipoproteins from renal transplant recipients. Sutherland WH, Walker RJ, De Jong SA, Upritchard JE. Clin Nephrol. 1999 Jul;52(1):30-6 1999 AIM: Oxidative stress and susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidation are increased in renal transplant recipients. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with tomato juice on plasma levels of the antioxidant lycopene, serum indices of lipid peroxidation (fluorescent lipid oxidation products (FLOP) and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS)) and the resistance of isolated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation (lag time) in patients with a kidney graft. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients were randomized to daily consumption of either tomato juice or synthetic orange drink for 4 weeks in a crossover study. Plasma lycopene levels were significantly higher (1.57 micromol/l versus 0.91 micromol/l, p = 0.015) while serum FLOP and TBARS and resistance of LDL to oxidation were not significantly different during supplementation with tomato juice compared with orange drink. At baseline, serum levels of lycopene and FLOP were abnormally high and serum FLOP was correlated significantly with plasma cyclosporine levels (r = 0.646, p = 0.016). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these data suggest that increased oxidative stress and susceptibility of LDL to oxidation may not be reduced by increasing plasma lycopene levels with regular consumption of tomato juice in renal transplant recipients. RCT   (+)      
Skin Walfisch Y Lycopene in serum, skin and adipose tissues after tomato-oleoresin supplementation in patients undergoing haemorrhoidectomy or peri-anal fistulotomy. Walfisch Y, Walfisch S, Agbaria R, Levy J, Sharoni Y. Br J Nutr. 2003 Oct;90(4):759-66. 2003 Lycopene, the main carotenoid found in tomatoes and tomato-based products, has been reported to be protective against several types of cancer. Assessment of changes in plasma concentration of carotenoids following ingestion of lycopene-rich food sources does not necessarily predict changes in lycopene concentration or distribution of its isomers in other body tissues. Our aim was to determine the relationship between concentrations of lycopene and other tomato carotenoids in human serum and body tissues after tomato-oleoresin supplementation. Tomato lycopene oleoresin (30 mg/d) or a placebo was administered for 1 to 7 weeks to seventy-five volunteers undergoing elective haemorrhoidectomy or peri-anal fistulotomy. Carotenoid concentration and isomer distribution in blood and in the surgically removed skin and adipose tissues was measured by HPLC. The serum concentration of lycopene increased after supplementation from 0.26 (SD 0.12) to 0.52 (SD 0.25) micromol/l (n 35; P<0.0001). In the placebo group (n 40), lycopene serum concentration did not change significantly. Serum lycopene concentration after treatment was 2.2-fold greater in the lycopene group than in the placebo group, a slightly higher ratio than that found in skin and adipose tissue (1.6- and 1.4-fold higher than the placebo, respectively). A significant correlation between serum and tissue concentrations was found for both beta-carotene and lycopene in the placebo group, whereas in the lycopene-supplemented group the correlation between serum and tissues remained the same for beta-carotene but for lycopene was weak. Lycopene supplementation did not significantly change the proportion of all-trans v. cis isomers in the serum and tissues, despite the fact that more than 90 % of the supplemented lycopene was in the all-trans form. These results show that tomato-oleoresin supplementation increases lycopene concentrations in serum and in adipose tissue and skin. The ability to increase lycopene levels in tissues is one of the prerequisites for using it as a food supplement with health benefits. RCT         (+) ↑[lyco] in serum and adipose tissue and skin

 

Disease type First Author Study Title and Complete Citation Date Abstract Study Type G.Tom +, N, P.Tom +, N, F.Tom +, N, - Lyco +, N, Other +, N,
Thai pop Boonsiri P Serum beta-carotene, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol levels of healthy people in northeast Thailand. Boonsiri P, Pooart J, Tangrassameeprasert R, Hongsprabhas P. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:47-51. 2007 Human serum contains many different antioxidants which may be important in the maintenance of antioxidant status. beta-carotene and lycopene are carotenoids with potent antioxidant activity. Carotenoids intake probably protects against cancers and may affect the risk of several chronic conditions. alpha-tocopherol is well known for its function as antioxidant and in reduction of heart disease and cancer risk. We aimed to establish baseline values for serum beta-carotene, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol concentrations in healthy northeast Thais. Fasting serum beta-carotene, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol levels from 294 subjects aged 23-75 years old in northeast Thailand were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean serum beta-carotene, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol levels were 0.53 +/- 0.32 micromol/L, 0.57 +/- 0.37 micromol/L, and 26.64 +/- 14.85 micromol/L respectively. Serum beta-carotene and lycopene levels in females (N = 118) were significantly higher than the value for males (N = 176), ie 0.60 +/- 0.31 micromol/L versus 0.48 +/- 0.32 micromol/L (p = 0.002) for beta-carotene and 0.74 +/- 0.38 micromol/L versus 0.46 +/- 0.33 micromol/L (p<0.001) for lycopene whereas alpha-tocopherol level in males (28.60 +/- 14.34 micromol/L) was significantly higher than in females (23.72 +/- 15.16 micromol/L) (p = 0.006). beta-carotene level was positively correlated with alpha-tocopherol (r = 0.22, p<0.001) and lycopene levels (r = 0.63, p<0.001). The results from this study give the baseline data of serum beta-carotene, lycopene and alpha-tocopherol levels in healthy northeast Thai population and also suggest future study on the relationship of dietary intake. CS         Serum [lyco] ↑ in women than men
US Pop Talegawkar SA Carotenoid intakes, assessed by food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs), are associated with serum carotenoid concentrations in the Jackson Heart Study: validation of the Jackson Heart Study Delta NIRI Adult FFQs. Talegawkar SA, Johnson EJ, Carithers TC, Taylor HA, Bogle ML, Tucker KL. Public Health Nutr. 2008 Oct;11(10):989-97. Epub 2007 Dec 6. 2008 OBJECTIVES: Intake and status of carotenoids have been associated with chronic disease. The objectives of this study were to examine the association between carotenoid intakes as measured by two regional food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and their corresponding measures in serum, and to report on dietary food sources of carotenoids in Jackson Heart Study (JHS) participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of data for 402 African American men and women participating in the Diet and Physical Activity Sub-Study (DPASS) of the JHS. RESULTS: Mean serum carotenoid concentrations and intakes in this population were comparable to those reported for the general US population. After adjustment for covariates, correlations between serum and dietary measures of each carotenoid, for the average of the recalls (deattenuated), the short FFQ and the long FFQ, respectively, were: 035 and a-carotene; 026 and b-carotene; 017 and g-carotene; 034 and b-cryptoxanthin; 015 and 037, 014 for lycopene. Major dietary sources of -carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin, mustard, turnip and collard greens; of beta-cryptoxanthin, orange juice; and of lycopene, tomato juice. CONCLUSIONS: On average, carotenoid intakes and serum concentrations are not lower in this southern African American population than the general US population. The two regional FFQs developed for a southern US population and used as dietary assessment tools in the JHS appear to provide reasonably valid information for most of these carotenoids. CS       (+) ↑ general no difference compared to general US pop